Depending on the age of your MacBook, you'll have one or more connections on the side that an external screen can connect to. When you identify your MacBook you'll be able figure out the best way to connect a screen, whether it's directly or using an adaptor.
If the external monitor doesn't help, the onboard graphics may have gone pop, which might have ...
The easy way to access files and back them up is to connect to another Mac via target disk mode. Just the bare minimum parts of the system like the disk controller and selected bus need to work.
Does working in Target Disk mode hurt hardware?
Apple has support articles and dozens of questions here cover most of the common scenarios to use target disk mode. ...
The Macbooks connector is only USB-C (USB 3.1 Gen 1), which is not Thunderbolt 3.
You can't connect in target disk mode via a thunderbolt 3 cable.
You can use USB-C data cable to connect in USB target disk mode.
(Not that this helps, but the Macbook Pro has native thunderbolt 3 support, and would work in this manner.)
You also can use migration ...
I did an almost identical recovery a couple days ago. Heres my answer:
DON'T USE MACOS BUILT IN TRANSFER METHODS
I have found them extremely unreliable, difficult to debug, and unable to resume on failure.
Instead, use rsync!
Connect via Target Disk Mode. Make sure to ignore permissions on the drive.
The following command will recovery everything and ...
For the touch-bar 13" MBP the right side ports have reduced bandwidth, this could explain a portion of the difference in speed between the two modes. However, you will likely never see the full speed while running in TDM, that is because TDM runs as a UEFI application within the UEFI rom, this limits the resources that can be used in targeted disk mode. ...