From comments, your disk is formatted as FAT32, which is incapable of holding unix or even Windows permissions.
It is also very dubious in its hardlink capability. You can force them, but file repair tools are likely to break them.
By far the best format for Mac backups is GUID/HFS+ not MBR/FAT32.
You will need to Erase (not Partition) the entire disk to ...
What looks like a folder in /Volumes is not a real folder. Everything inside /Volumes looks (at first glance) to be folders, but in reality are what are called mount points. These are just places to join disks into the tree of folders starting from /Volumes.
When you mount a disk, macOS creates a mount point in /Volumes and connects the disk to that mount ...
Since your failed system was on Catalina, which uses the Read-Only System Volume scheme with separate System and Data volumes, it sounds like you backed up only the System volume. The /Users directory, however, is stored in Data.
One possibility for why you did this is that the Data volume might be corrupted and unmountable and therefore didn’t show up in ...
The output you posted shows 250 GB of free space. You could either use the space to install Linux or you could add this space to the APFS container. The command to add the space to the container is given below.
sudo diskutil apfs resizecontainer disk0s2 0
If you want to use the free space to install Linux, then nothing needs to be done from macOS. You will ...
They are encrypted with the AES encryption algorithm.
After you have encrypted the external disk, you can open Terminal and run this command to check the encryption:
diskutil cs list
It will show the disk, and then something like this in the output:
Encryption Type: AES-XTS
Here AES-XTS means that the main encryption algorithm is AES, and that ...
If the recovery mode on your Mac won't let you install macOS, then the next trick is "Internet Recovery Mode". See this web page for a description of how to use it to reinstall your Mac's OS: https://www.macworld.co.uk/how-to/recovery-mode-internet-3636668/#internet%20recovery
The important thing to note here though, is that you need to be ...
To conclude so far: SATA cable was not damaged, as suggested somewhere else.
I came to the conclusion that the SSD itself is broken and I failed to repair it. Even GParted was also not able to format the partition.
Therefore I have just replaced the SSD with a new one. Luckily I was able to save most of the data, since the partition could still be accessed ...
Up to 40% drop is reasonable with the all the overhead of the encryption, it's not for free. However I have found out with the M1 airbook it is also drive dependant.
M1 airbook with a verified dongle (can push 100+ MB):
Transcend 1TB: unencryped 100-110 MB/s, encrypted: 40-70 MB/s
Seagate 5TB: unencryped 100-110 MB/s, encrypted: 15-20 MB/s
2015 macbook pro (...
According to this article, the external drive has to be either an HFS+ drive or (since Big Sur) an APFS drive!
I tested it with an external "APFS encrypted" drive and it worked. I was able to disable the exclusion in the settings and thereby back up the external drive to Time Machine!
The "circle with a line through it" is known as the prohibitory symbol. Typically this means that your startup disk contains a version or build of macOS that your Mac can't use. In your case it seems something else is going wrong, but, if I read between the lines correctly, it seems your main goal is to upgrade to macOS Big Sur anyway.
The best ...
OK, I figured this out (with thanks to @Gilby):
In the Finder I used Cmd+Shift+. to show hidden items and navigated to the Volumes folder.
The leftover Mount Point was listed there. A simple cmd+delete removed the Mount Point.
If you have enabled FileVault once, the disk will be locked. Try open disk utility and mount it. It should ask for a disk password. Enter your disk encryption passwords which you entered when you setup FileVault. And, you're good to go.
If you forget disk passwords, you should try resetting with iCloud. Else, you'll need to format it.
Though it still cannot handle APFS, the single best 'fixit' app for HFS+ has always been DiskWarrior. idk whether they do a free trial.
Failing that, you're into 'file scavenger' apps, which are going to be poor on a drive full of hardlinks.