There are several tools available from Howard Oakley’s site that I would recommend that you look at.
SilentKnight – a new generation with fully automatic security checks
[C]heck whether your Mac is up to date automatically. Checks EFI firmware, security settings and data files, and has both a summary Help page and a detailed reference. Update handles ...
It's not clear what you are wanting that the origianal article and it's links don't already provide.
I am specifically searching for self-verifiable things (not third
party program), such as lists of known malware, EFI checksums and
There isn't any.
To the best of our knowledge there are no Mac firmware bootkits in ...
This may be far fetched, but is the USB formatted as GUID partition scheme? The Mac boot program rejects anything other than it with my experiences. And have you checked if the Linux is UEFI compatible? That may be an issue with newer Mac's.
Steps to a Create USB Windows 10 Installer
Use the Boot Camp Assistant application to download the Windows Support Software.
Download the latest Windows 10 iso file.
Use to Disk Utility application to erase a 16 GB or larger USB flash drive. Use the setting shown below.
Use the Finder application to mount the Windows 10 iso file.
Use the Finder application ...
Based on the latest information posted in the question, here is what to enter. The assumption is the values posted are correct. The drive used a 4096 sector size. Since image files are fixed at a 512 byte sector size, all the values need to be multiplied by 8.
Note: You may get an error message when entering the command to destroy the GPT. You should ...