No. iPads just use SIM for data, not voice.
You would need to keep your SIM in your iPhone and use the forward calls and text feature for iCloud to receive and make calls and messages from the iPad through the iPhone. Also, look into WiFi calling on the iPad by enabling it in the carrier / phone section of your settings app on iPhone.
can I just check if you've tried the steps in this Apple Support document? It seems it might answer your question.
The steps laid out there for removing your old phone number are as follows.
On your iPhone, go to Settings > Messages > Send & Receive. Select your Apple ID and tap Sign Out. Then go to Settings > ...