I have a Mac that doesn't have iPhoto installed on it, which I use for syncing with my iPhone. Is there any way I can copy images from my phone to my Mac (other than email) without purchasing a copy of iPhoto?
Use Image Capture. You'll find it in your Applications folder. It's surprisingly robust, and it's made by Apple.
You can also use Preview, go File -> Import from iPhone.
You can also try apps like DropPhox which will sync your pictures to Dropbox as soon as you click them. Very handy!