A new MacBook came with something called AirDrop and worked between many MacBooks such as MacBook Pro and MacBook Air. Can I also use AirDrop to exchange data between Macs and iOS devices?
You cannot use AirDrop with iOS devices. It is a feature that is exclusive to supported Macs (and unsupported Macs through a hack, as you've pointed out).
Apple intends for you and developers to use iCloud to get documents from PC to iOS, but it's not widespread yet and perhaps ever.
Looks like iOS 7 is going to have AirDrop as the new UI has an icon for AirDrop right next to the icon for AirPlay.
It has been announced that starting with OS X 10.10, Airdrop will interoperate between OS X and iOS.
Just update after IOS7 release. Looks like the link between airdrop from supported IOS7 devices to supported OSX Mountain Lion is not working. Probably something that should/will be completed with release Mavericks.
The best choice to share with macs, Windows, Linux, NAS servers, FTP, Dropbox, Google Drive,Time Capsule, etc is Quick Explorer.
I used instashare before and its similiar to airdrop but it works only with pictures (not bad, but not enough ) If you want to share andy file, mp3, wav, video, doc, pdf, and otherwise file formats Quick Explorer is the best choice. I've found that it's the best tool for this purpose as it handles different file types and platforms.