Can I access the contents of the "Data" folder on computers other than Macs? For instance, can I access the Time Capsule from my Android phone?
What do you mean by "access"? If you mean editing files and/or copying files to and from Time Capsule, you might not be able to do that since the hard drive in Time Capsule is formatted using Mac Journaled file system. If all you want is to view files, some Android apps might be able to access the device over network.