If a small business wanted to share a common database between all of its employees, is it possible to create a single iCloud account for a specific App rather than for all the iCloud related software on the iOS device?
Seems you had some vision Douglas. Apple finally did come out with CloudKit that allows multiple users. Apple CloudKit provides both a public and a private data store.
iOS and OS X only support a single account to access iCloud. It can't be done on a per-app basis.
Furthermore, the iCloud syncing stuff isn't really designed for concurrent multi-user access, it's built for the sort of syncing that needs to happen for personal devices - i.e. that you're using only one device at a time. It's also worth noting that from a developer's standpoint, iCloud is far from perfect, particularly with regards to the Core Data (database schema) syncing and storage.
You don't say exactly what your needs are, but I strongly suspect you'd be better served looking somewhere else for a business-critical app.
I'm not a developer, but I play one --- oh wait, I am a developer. Serioussly, I really agree with CanuckSkier that iCloud is not ready for mainstream user development unfortunately, and that at present, it's not really used in multi-user applications.
I haven't used Google Apps much (I will look at them!), but have been playing with both Dropbox and Parse. Parse (www.parse.com) seems ideal for sharing a multi-user database.
Both Parse and Dropbox have developer forum, have tons of documentation and sample code.
They are terrific to work with too.
Hope this helps..