I recently changed my password and promptly forgot it :P What is the best option for resetting it? I can still access the mac via SSH (ssh key auth method), can I do anything with that?
No - the typical ways to reset a password or delete the file that lets the Mac reboot to the setup assistant where it lets you create a new admin user that will have a known password all require you to know a working user/password combination that works for sudo.
You'll want to boot to the Recovery HD or install media or into single user mode to make a new admin user (which can be deleted once you've reset your password) or use the normal OSX procedure to reset your password.
If you are an administrative user (or can login as one on the shell prompt), you should be able to use
sudo passwd USER to change the password.