There's no default option to share to AirDrop like on Safari Browser.
The feature is actually available on the File menu, File -> Share -> Airdrop. We can create a keyboard shortcut to make things easier. Search for Keyboard Shortcuts... > App Shortcuts, here you can add new shortcut like below:
Here I chose to use Cmd-Shift S because it's unused and s as a hint for share, and the shortcut is easy to press.
Air drop is your answer for sharing the link itself – BUT if you want to share the page between your own devices, there is a much simpler way;
-> If you are logged in with the same Apple ID and the browser with the page in question is open on your Mac, you should get a little tooltip at the bottom of the screen of your iPhone
(This also works in reverse if you have a browser page open on your iPhone, it will show a little icon in the dock of the Mac)