On iOS 17.0.2 there's no built in setting to default to wide angle photos. I don't see it as an option in the shortcuts app either, but perhaps someone can make a custom app that works with shortcuts similar to the one linked here (which does other tasks - not camera ones) to call the specific API that apple provides develiopers to select the back camera, choose ultra wide, choose photo and then perform the capture, all in software.
AVCaptureDevice.default(.builtInWideAngleCamera, for: .photo, position: .back)
I'm not aware of such an app, but will edit this if I find one. You will need Apple to change their software (make this a default, make a pre-shipped shortcut option in Photos to select wide angle) or a developer to ship code as a shortcut automation (or use another camera app entirely) for this to happen.