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I'm currently using a MacBook Pro (2020) with an LG 5K External Monitor.

When the MacBook Pro is not in use, should the cable connecting the external monitor be unplugged or not? Assuming that the charging cable is not unplugged when the MacBook Pro is unused, then is the MacBook Pro constantly charging and would this be harmful to Macbook Pro or not?

Besides, I found that if I unplugged the cable when MacBook Pro sleeps, then reconnect the LG 5k External monitor, its camera and audio would not work sometimes, unless the MacBook Pro is restarted. I don't know how to solve this problem.

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If your MacBook Pro is permanently connected to power, when used with an external display, then after a few days, it will only charge to about 80%, in order to preserve the life of the battery.

https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT212049

In macOS Big Sur or later, Optimized Battery Charging is designed to improve the lifespan of your battery and reduce the time your Mac spends fully charged. When the feature is enabled, your Mac will delay charging past 80% in certain situations. Your Mac learns your charging routine and aims to ensure that your Mac is fully charged when unplugged.

While there is evidence to support improved lifespan by generally keeping your battery between 20% and 80% across its entire life; I suspect that over-thinking it and micro-managing your usage will probably not achieve a measurable result.

Plenty of Mac laptops stay happily plugged into the charger for large periods of their total life.

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  • This is exactly what we do at work. We do update the macOS regularly and allow the battery health to optimize charging on our portables. We also try and update firmware on the LG displays. Set the defaults and leave everything connected works very well for longevity and letting the screen sleep preserves backlight life.
    – bmike
    Aug 13, 2023 at 17:04

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