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I was using a desktop wireless charger this morning and picked up my phone and felt it being noticeably hot to the touch. I measured the back of my phone about a minute or so after removing from the desk and it measured under an IR thermometer as 101F (38.33C).

I recall reading someplace about certain car manufacturers putting the car battery in the trunk compartment to keep it out of the hot engine bay because heat degrades a battery's lifetime apparently. Could the same phenomena apply to phone batteries getting heated up via wireless chargers? The constant heat of an engine during the vehicle's operation isn't the same as an infrequent wireless battery charging of course but perhaps there's some amount of loss?

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In short: no.

Longer: the following shows that even under the assumption that the different charging method raises temperature of the battery from 25 deg C to 35 deg C, the addition in degradation is minimal.

graph from https://www.nature.com/articles/srep12967/figures/5 Source: https://www.nature.com/articles/srep12967

I. e. it's a 6.5 % reduction in capacity instead of 4.2 % after 250 cycles. This experiment was also run with constant raises in temperature, not merely for an hour or so each day.

But, of course, the temperature on the outside isn't what's happening in the battery. The heat originates with the "receptor" structure. Since wireless charging tends to be slower than wired charging, I wouldn't be surprised if actual temperature in the battery is really lower in wireless charging.

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    can you cite the source of the experiment anywhere, this is a great figure.
    – jxramos
    Jun 10, 2022 at 6:18
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    @jxramos fixed the source link so it actually shows up. Jun 10, 2022 at 20:02

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