It should be easy enough to create an Automator workflow that just opens a specific folder in a new window. Save it as a Service, and it will appear in Contextual menus.
There's an Automator action "Reveal Finder Items" that will do this. You would need to use "Get Specified Finder Items" before it, to select the location you want in each Service. Then just save each Service as the name of the location it opens.
However, the point of a contextual menu, as the name suggests, is that the items in the menu relate to the object being right-clicked on, rather than being 'general'.
In the Finder, you can access the Desktop, Applications folder, Home, etc from the Go menu, or with the keyboard shortcuts shown there, e.g. Shift Command D for Desktop, Shift Command A for Applications; Shift Command H for Home...
Alternatively, there are apps like Devontech's Xmenu utility, which allows for navigable file hierarchies from the menubar.