You can do that using the autofill feature that can be accessed only using a mouse or a keyboard shortcut in Numbers. (Technically, it is extrapolation but I reckon it would do the job.) An autofill feature is also available through the Numbers menu (Table -> Autofill Cells) but that one can not handle sequences.
For a range of cells in a column to be automatically filled in based on a sequence, first manually fill in at least the first two cells in the range. Then select those two cells, a.k.a. example cells, and move the mouse pointer over the bottom border of the example cells so that a yellow autofill handle (a dot) appears. Then hover the mouse pointer over the yellow handle so that the mouse pointer becomes a two-way arrow. When the two-way arrow appears, assuming you are right-handed, left-click on the mouse so that the outer borders of the example cells also turn into yellow and drag the yellow handle along with the two-way arrow over to the last cell of the range to be filled in and release the mouse. You can also have cells above the example cells automatically filled in as well as cells in a row.
As an example, take a look at the gif below (decimal points appear as commas because I use Continental Europe number formatting). Further details on the mouse-enabled autofill feature in Numbers as well as directions on accessing it using a keyboard shortcut are available in this Apple support webpage called "Autofill cells in Numbers on Mac".