There is new iPhone 12, and when lauching any app first time, it asks many questions.
But why would iPhone ask for 'allow "Settings" to use wireless data'?
I don't think device configuration ("Settings") should be dependent on anything external.
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Settings themselves don't synchronise to iCloud, but the Settings app still accesses information from the Internet.
For the front page of Settings, this includes
Going deeper into Settings presents lots of information from the Internet, such as
This is all information downloaded from the Internet, so network access is required. This is not an exhaustive list, but meant to demonstrate how a variety of information in the Settings app needs Internet access.