Everything is correct. This is all due to the split of the system volume (Macintosh HD or whatever you called it) into a read-only volume and a read-write volume.
Start by looking at the disk with Disk Utility. Press Command-2 (or tick Menu -> View -> Show All Devices). You should see something like this (the names will be different):
Within the APFS container you can see two volumes. In myself case BethSSD and BethSSD - Data. In what follows replace these with your own system volume name.
BethSSD is the read-only (highly protected) volume created by the macOS install and has the same content same on every Mac with the same version of macOS.
BethSSD - Data is a read-write volume and contains everything not part of the read-only volume. As well as your files, it includes all the application you have installed.
So we have two volumes and both will have applications - so Finder does some trickery to show them as one.
Taking your three locations (but in a different order) and a fourth:
2 The applications on the read-only volume are the Apple macOS applications and can be seen in
4 (what you have not seen): In Terminal do
ls /System/Volumes/Data/Applications. Here you will see all the applications you have installed - but none of the inbuilt macOS apps.
1 and 3. macOS combines the two locations above into one using "firmlinks". These are what you are seeing as
/System/Volumes/<name>/Applications as well as
I hope that helps. To go much further requires much mind bending!