I like to adjust which contacts can call me when “Do Not Disturb” is active, but going deep into the settings each time is tedious. Is there a faster way to adjust this setting?
You could use the Shortcuts app to maintain a separate group of whitelisted contacts that are allowed to bypass Do Not Disturb (you can choose to Allow Calls From a group). That way, you can introduce more complicated behavior into the shortcut - for example, "toggle all family members", or "only allow my wife" - through a menu system within the shortcut. You can also trigger the shortcut from a home screen icon, Siri, Apple Watch, or back tap.
Note that you'll need to create the group in iCloud or Google Contacts (whichever sync service you use) first, as you can't create groups in the native Contacts app.