I have a 2010 MacPro running Mojave. I've been trying to buy, copy, or steal copies of Pages and Numbers for hours just so I can work on a client's Pages file.
Why is this so hard?
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Running on Mojave, a quick test of deleting Pages reveals that I cannot download the latest version from the App Store's main pages, but if I go to the list of "Purchased" apps in my Account, I can download a compatible version.
If you haven't already purchased (for the sum of 0) the iWork apps, then you likely can't download them on older OSes. It's well worth downloading them now, for the future!
To answer the question "Why is this so hard?": Apple is not interested in supporting old OSes or computers that can't upgrade to the newest OSes. Apple's support best "effort" to "solve" this is saying "buy a new computer" 🙄
So you'll have to look somewhere. I found these versions that work with Mojave and High Sierra:
Been to the app store, but tried one more time just to be sure. Here's what happens:
My Mojave is 10.14.6 and the app store won't sell apps to anyone running less than 10.15.x
All you get is an error message from the App Store, but the truth is out there if you hunt around enough.
I actually need Numbers more than Pages because my client put all the captions and sidebars in a Numbers spreadsheet. I no longer have working Microsoft applications, they died when I migrated to this 2010 MacPro. None of my OpenOffice applications can pull off this trick.
Tried the iCloud approach, couldn't find a way to import the Numbers file.
I probably won't need Numbers or Pages very often after I get through this annoying project. I've been doing this stuff since Quark v.2 came out in the late 1980's, was a Compugraphic and Varityper typesetter before that. Onward!