This issue can be cleared by a restart, but that does not solve the problem. I had tried the following so far:
- Reinstall the system multiple times (preserving applications and data)
- Booting up in safe mode
- Transfering the system partition into another mac, reinstalling the system, then transfer it back, and reinstalling the system (not for solving this problem, but because there was some issue with the butterfly keyboard)
- Resetting the Finder preference
This issue does not come up in other user accounts. It seems to appear after one day where, because the Time Machine sparse image mount from a smb share froze and I cannot force quit Finder, I mounted a memory drive over /volumes and launched (another copy of) Finder through the command line. Finder works normally, but since then I have this problem.