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When I put the scaling setting of my screen on setting 4 on the scale of "Larger Text" (1) and "More Space" (5), system report says this:

Displays:
 PHL BDM4350:
  Resolution:   6400 x 3600
  UI Looks like:    3200 x 1800 @ 60 Hz
  Framebuffer Depth:    30-Bit Colour (ARGB2101010)

When I put it on setting 5 on the scale of "Larger Text" (1) and "More Space" (5), system report says this:

Displays:
 PHL BDM4350:
  Resolution:   3840x2160 (2160p/4K UHD 1 - Ultra High Definition)
  UI Looks like:    3840 x 2160 @ 60 Hz
  Framebuffer Depth:    30-Bit Colour (ARGB2101010)

I have two questions:

  1. My screen is 4k, and has less than 6400 x 3600 pixels. Is my screen not running at the optimal resolution, or is the graphics card doing additional resizing?
  2. Would my laptop be performing better if it is running at 3840 x 2160 pixels and then increasing font size a bit?
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Question 1:

In both cases the display is running at the same actual resolution (3840x2160). However, the graphics are rendered virtually at a resolution of 6400x3600 before being downsampled to the actual resolution.

This is done because 3200x1800 is not an integer multiple of the actual resolution, therefore there's going to be some compromises made regarding image quality when viewing it on screen. In order to make the right compromises, the display is rendered virtually to a much higher resolution that is then downsampled to the actual resolution. This enables the computer to use those extra bits of display data to choose a better pixel value for each position on the display, than if it just had a 3840x2160 virtual rendering to work with.

Question 2:

Yes, I think that is the case here.

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