Apple's Universal Clipboard only works with devices that are signed into the same account. With AirDrop, it requires a piece of content - you can't just paste your clipboard into AirDrop. However, if you want to share things with other people, there are a few things you can do:
Shared Notebook like Notes or OneNote (I personally use OneNote). Each person can have access to the same notebook and changes are instantaneous.
Send links and documents via Messaging. iMessage, Skype, etc. all have the ability to share links, documents, etc.
Built in "Share" feature. For example, on Firefox (Safari and Chrome as well), you can share a webpage via the services you have configured in System Preferences → Extensions → Share Menu. AirDrop is one of these item and as long as the other person has a compatible device, you can share your content via AirDrop.
Native sharing in Apps like Word, Excel, Pages, etc. All of these Apps have supported sharing/collaboration natively for a long time. Instead of one person having the file and opening, extracting the data you want, then creating a new file, instead, share the file in a common location where everyone has access.
Look at paid apps. There are tools like Microsoft Sharepoint, Microsoft Teams, Slack.
Most of the paid applications (especially Sharepoint) will be overkill, but smaller products like Teams and Slack may be your next step as you grow. The other items are free to use and with some creative IT structuring you can share things whether you're next to each other or halfway around the world apart.
My personal go-to is OneNote. I share both entire notebooks and individual sections and/or pages. I share almost anything via those notebooks like links, documents, images, lists, web pages, etc. And because it integrates with Microsoft To-Do that also integrates/syncs with Reminders, Outlook, Exchange, Calendar, etc. I have a simple platform for collaborating with others on my team. I can assign and (accept assignment of) To-Dos for others right in the App, have the due dates pop up in both Reminders and Outlook and in the "notes" section of the To-Do, I can link a OneNote page with the content I need shared.
The best part - all of that is free. With a little creativity, you can get a pretty good solution for what you're looking for.