tl;dr In the Catalina terminal ping lan-services.local works but ping lan-services does not
I have a 2012 Mac mini that I just installed Catalina on from scratch (i.e. blank SSD and USB install) connected to a home network via Ethernet that cannot find servers / devices on the LAN without appending '.local' to the name. This was not needed before Catalina on the same LAN set-up (i.e. the only thing I can think of that's changed is the OS on the Mac).
~% ping lan-services ping: cannot resolve lan-services: Unknown host ~ % ping lan-services.local PING lan-services.local (192.168.1.10): 56 data bytes 64 bytes from 192.168.1.10: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=5.480 ms ... ^C
Network Config for Ethernet
- IPv4 configured Using DHCP
- IPv6 configured Link-local only
- DNS set to 184.108.40.206 and 220.127.116.11 (set by router)
- Advanced / DNS / Search Domains is local (no dot as per help examples)
- Mac Firewall is OFF
- Everything else has not been changed (i.e. default to Catalina)
No entries have been added (where not needed on Mojave)
## # Host Database # # localhost is used to configure the loopback interface # when the system is booting. Do not change this entry. ## 127.0.0.1 localhost 255.255.255.255 broadcasthost ::1 localhost
VPN and Anti-Virus
- VPN software installed BUT NOT active - this is the same as the previous Mojave install
- Two VPNs Windscribe and Bitdefender (I could not load Bitdefender without its VPN software)
- Disabling Bitdefender 'Shield' does not help
Target servers / devices
- Internet router is DNS server with a default domain as local
- Some set up as static IPv4 in their config files - some dynamic
- Internet router has static IPv4 assignments for the servers / devices
- ISP does not support IPv6 so the router is set to RADVD (link-local) but NOT bound to an external interface
- Finder correctly shows the server I am trying to PING
- Finder opens the server shares fine (it is a Pi using Netatalk / AFP for file sharing NOT SMB)
- Some devices have IPv4 only, some have IPv4 and IPv6 stacks loaded
- No devices has any firewall settings that would stop PING or SSH
scutil --dns output
DNS configuration resolver #1 search domain : local nameserver : 18.104.22.168 nameserver : 22.214.171.124 if_index : 5 (en1) flags : Request A records reach : 0x00000002 (Reachable) resolver #2 domain : local options : mdns timeout : 5 flags : Request A records reach : 0x00000000 (Not Reachable) order : 300000 resolver #3 domain : 254.169.in-addr.arpa options : mdns timeout : 5 flags : Request A records reach : 0x00000000 (Not Reachable) order : 300200 resolver #4 domain : 8.e.f.ip6.arpa options : mdns timeout : 5 flags : Request A records reach : 0x00000000 (Not Reachable) order : 300400 resolver #5 domain : 9.e.f.ip6.arpa options : mdns timeout : 5 flags : Request A records reach : 0x00000000 (Not Reachable) order : 300600 resolver #6 domain : a.e.f.ip6.arpa options : mdns timeout : 5 flags : Request A records reach : 0x00000000 (Not Reachable) order : 300800 resolver #7 domain : b.e.f.ip6.arpa options : mdns timeout : 5 flags : Request A records reach : 0x00000000 (Not Reachable) order : 301000 DNS configuration (for scoped queries) resolver #1 search domain : local nameserver : 126.96.36.199 nameserver : 188.8.131.52 if_index : 5 (en1) flags : Scoped, Request A records reach : 0x00000002 (Reachable)
A search turned up this question (though it seems to be a reverse issue) and the solution of adding mdnsactivedirectory via discoveryutil but that program seems to have been deprecated in Catalina - this was not required in Mojave.
I may not be the only one having this issue (going by this Apple Forum question) but no domain is shown and the 'hint' is either talk to Apple or look at Active Directory (not installed here).
Turning on file sharing does not help.
Checked sons Windows 10 PC - he can reach devices without the .local as well as devices with the .local (pin lan-services checked before pin lan-services.local) and is running iTunes for his music.
A note from above test today I'm not running iTunes as Apple changed to iTune to the Music App
Just installed Discovery - DNS-SD Browser from eh App Store (thanks to Lily Ballard for this FOC package). This shows its picking up services from AFP over TCP and picking up all the devices on my home LAN (easier to play with):
Workarounds I'm trying to avoid
- Adding entries into /etc/hosts
- Adding .local to the end of each server name by hand - me being lazy (though this is what I am currently doing)
- Installing ANOTHER DHCP / DNS server (e.g. pi-hole / pfSense etc)
- Downgrading to Mojave
- Moving to SMB shares - one server does not seem to support SMB without a whole series of faff for security and performance is pathetic. TBH also I do not have a great deal of practice with SAMBA security (basic shares fine) and no spare cash in project to upgrade old servers if Samba does not run on them.