It sounds like you've tried several SATA drives using that adapter on your system? If so it's more likely the SATA controller on the adapter has some compatibility issues with that model of system.
I've had a bunch of SATA/USB adapters that were a little temperamental on various systems over the years. My go-to solution has always been to simply order another from Amazon from a different brand. It's the blessing and curse of everything being so cheap and easy to order/receive.
My recent go-to adapters that have been reasonably reliable are the UNITEK USB 3.0 to SATA converter adapter (if it needs power), and the StarTech SATA to USB adapter - either USB C or USB 3.0/3.1 version depending on the cost and what I'll need it for.
Others may have some favorites they can share as well.
I'm not a huge fan of "buy another one" mentality, but in your case I think that's probably the easiest solution, especially as the adapters are less than $25 and quick to ship.