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As macOS is POSIX compliant and Unix certified, why does vi redirects to vim? As I understand, vim is not POSIX compliant. So how did Apple obtained a Unix certification without having vi installed on their OS?

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    Adding to the current answer: Certified or de-jure "compliant" doesn't mean that it's actually de-facto compliant. To be UNIX™ you need to pass the TET3 testsuite (amongst other things) – think of a big unit-test. If something is not covered, it's "fine" to diverge. Eg. Apple had issues with the extended exit-code for waitid being wrongly bitmasked but still passed. To give credit where credit is due: They fixed that in the next release, iirc.
    – ljrk
    May 11 '20 at 8:34
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    Vim runs in compatible mode when it detect that it was run as vi.
    – Hauleth
    May 11 '20 at 19:13
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It's actually optional.

Per the The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, 2018 edition in the Shells & Utilities Volume, the vi command states:

This utility shall be provided on systems that both support the User Portability Utilities option and define the POSIX2_CHAR_TERM symbol. On other systems it is optional.

That particular specification is a component of the Unix 03 product standard which is what macOS Catalina is certified for.

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