My Activity Monitor does not have any columns that show more details about each process.
I've already ensured that under "View" in the menu bar, the relevant columns are enabled.
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The "Process Name" column is too big, causing it to crowd out the other columns pushing them to the right side. You can manually resize the "Process Name" column by enlarging the Activity Monitor window, scrolling far to the right, and then dragging the column separator between "Process Name" and the next column back to the left so that the column is standard size again.
This problem happened to me after a Catalina update. For whatever reason, the default size of that column was changed by the update causing this to occur.