The iPad now contains a mini, draggable, floating keyboard as an alternative to the full screen keyboard. This was released in iOS 13 / iPadOS 13 in September 2019.
This mini keyboard is roughly the size of an iPhone keyboard, but floating on your iPad's screen.
From the iPadOS release notes:
New floating keyboard leaving more room for your content—drag it anywhere you like
Pinch to shrink the QuickType keyboard and move it wherever you want so there’s more room for your apps.
How do you enable this iPad mini floating keyboard?