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New mac user here (Linux background). I'm running macOS Catalina (Beta5). I've noticed there are 5 volumes in my main disk container. One is mounted at /, that I understand, it's the system, another is /System/Volumes/Data, which I tough it would be the Linux /home, but it's not, so what it it?

Also what are the other two unmounted volumes? One might be the recovery one, but the other? Thanks!

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Catalina introduces a new file system where there is a blend of read-only system files and a read-write user space interleaved.

The easy way to move forward is just save to /usr/local and other traditional places where Apple expects user modifications to be saved.

Some of the implementation is quite normal for Unix/Linux like sparse files not being allocated and copy on write and cloning of an entire file system / snapshots. Other items like Firmlinks that act as “wormholes” between two containers / filesystems to present an unified file tree, System Integrity Protection and APFS specific features are quite new still to everyone.

You can see this better with df or diskutil apfs list command line tools than the Disk Utility view.

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