Building on @d4's answer, the sqlite DB does have the answer for which permission is granted. The
service column will be
kTCCServiceSystemPolicyAllFiles for Full Disk Access.
So the query:
sqlite3 /Library/Application\ Support/com.apple.TCC/TCC.db \
'select client from access where allowed and service = "kTCCServiceSystemPolicyAllFiles"'
will list out the apps and binaries that are allowed Full Disk Access, i.e.:
If you're interested, you can invert the query to
... where NOT allowed and service = ... and it will list the apps that are unchecked in the policy dialog.