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Being tired of reading new privacy issues affecting Windows, release after release, and OEMs introducing their own privacy-breaking software (or vulnerability - such as the recent Dell remote execution bug,) I'm looking into how macOS is different. Having heard so many people talking how much Apple cares about their users privacy, whether it's macOS, Macbooks or various devices.

Is there a reliable source / list of privacy feature / officially and legally-binding privacy policy (without having to go through all the fluff) I can refer to, to form my opinion?

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Apple has detailed pages describing their intent and operation. There's also an overview of the security technologies used in MacOS.

On MacOS, the main feature is FileVault (or the default encryption on the newest Macs with "T2" controller chips. Disk encryption means that the data on your Mac can only be accessed by someone with the password.
Safari has been at the fore-front of technologies to stop user tracking and maintain privacy.

On iOS, I'm sure you will have seen new reports of the US government wanting Apple to help them get into iPhones, and Apple indicating that is unable to comply, (and also unwilling). Here's Apple's iOS Security documentation.

There will always be vulnerabilities, exploits, and mistakes, of course.

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If you want something that's 'legally binding' then your only option is Apple's own Privacy Policy. These are the items to which Apple will be held.

On that page is simple navigation, in every language Apple supports, that leads you to easy to read pages on the features/privacy/security they provide.

TechCrunch wrote in 2017 about these pages:

Today, Apple is launching a new version of its privacy page that presents security and privacy as a consumer feature set.

The version of the site that launches today I think finally brings together all of these pieces and tells a story of Apple’s security policies as true, usable consumer features.

The security features of iPhone, iOS and other devices are presented on the site as a product showcase inside the philosophical framework of security — with a splash of customer education.

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