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Is there any disk encryption scheme or format that can be used on both macos and linux?

Linux cannot read Apple's drive encryption format, and LUKS is not supported on MacOS.

I tried using VeraCrypt encrypted partitions in exFat format and it mounted successfully several times on MacOS but after a system update exFat mounting of veracrypt volumes does not work anymore (no issues on linux). Also, exFat does not seem to be a reliable file system, so I searched for alternatives, but apart from fat32, exFat and ntfs I don't see any viable alternatives for a reliable cross-platform file system.

All of these formats have issues: fat32 has file size limits, exfat veracrypt partitions are not mountable on macos, and ntfs is proprietary, linux support is not reliable, and veracrypt does not support it on linux/mac. hfsplus works fine on mac but is read-only on linux. I hoped to be able to use ext3/ext4 with veracrypt encryption but even though I have fuse with ext4fuse working in read-only mode working for unencrypted drives veracrypt is apparently not able to interoperate with fuse drivers.

Fat32 would be a great option since it works well with veracrypt on any OS, but the file size limitation and lack of symlinks is simply not acceptable.

Any other options I might have missed?

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Veracrypt+exFat works on Mac/Linux/Windows. The problems with mounting on MacOS were caused by configuring veracrypt encryption for the entire disk rather than a single partition. As a result the partition table was encrypted too. While this worked fine on linux it caused problems on MacOS. Creating a normal unencrypted partition table with an exFat partition and then encrypting that partition with veracrypt works fine cross-platform.

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