Using the CUPS web interface, I was able to change the default setting for my Canon MX860 to greyscale from color. Previously, I had to go the the Printer Features dropdown in the macOS print dialog and change it manually for each print job. This greyscale setting persist between print jobs and system restarts. This may not be precisely what your looking for: a setting which will affect any and all printers attached to your computer at any time, but at least it sets greyscale as the default print option.
To use CUPS, you first need to enable the CUPS set interface in Terminal:
sudo cupsctl WebInterface=yes
and use an administrator's password to authenticate.
Once the Web interface has been enabled, access CUPS by going to this URL in the browser of your choice:
Then under the Administration drop-down for the printer of your choice, choose Set Default Options, which leads to this settings sheet:
I would suggest you disable web access to CUPS when you are done. I'm not sure what kind of nefarious access to your machine can be accomplished through CUPS, but you never know:
sudo cupsctl WebInterface=no