Does Macbook Pro not provide power modes (Power Saver, High Performance, etc) like a Windows laptop? If there is nothing like that, then I'd assume that OS X manages optimal settings itself.
Or is there something which I'm missing?
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There are no build-in power modes in Mac OS X. Still, the standard configuration in Mac OS X in combination with the high capacity batteries used in the MacBooks offers quite good battery life.
If you want to optimize your energy usage, you need to manually tweak settings.
Here's, what OS X offers to save power: