Is there a way to move to the front or back of a long sentence you type in the URL area on a iPhone with out having to get close as possible and then having to delete then retype?
Yes, just checked it on my iPhone, and have been using it on my iPad for awhile.
On an iPhone you have to do a long press(or 3D press) on the keyboard (Trackpad mode, thanks @fsb for its official name), this turns the whole keyboard into a trackpad bound to the text cursor. The keyboard will turn grey and the letters will disapear. You can now move your finger and it will move the text cursor.
On the iPad it works with 2 fingers together as well.
The other method is holding your finger down when trying to select a spot in text till a magnifier pops up, but that is not as easy with URLs.