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For instance: Windows supports DirectSound & ASIO, Linux supports PulseAudio & Jack, etc.

A basic google search currently does not seem to answer this basic question.

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Apple's main low-level Audio Framework / API for macOS 10.0+ is Core Audio .

https://developer.apple.com/documentation/coreaudio

Framework

Core Audio

Use specialized data types to interact with audio streams, complex buffers, and audiovisual timestamps. SDKs

Overview

The Core Audio framework (which is not an umbrella framework for the other services in Core Audio, but rather a peer) declares data types and constants used by other Core Audio interfaces. This framework also includes a handful of convenience functions.


Apple actually supports multiple frameworks & APIs, including AudioUnit & OpenAL.

Core Audio is actually based on OpenAL.

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