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I need to install macOS to a new SSD because the old one might be broken (MacBook freezes after couple of mins and will seldom start again - usually error screen showing a file with question mark). Obviously, therefore, I’m out of Macs and their app stores, so how am I supposed to download macOS and make a bootable USB so I can install it on the new SSD?

I can boot linux and windows and have App Store on iPhone and iPad.

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    Any model since about 2011 can boot to Internet Recovery, even with a totally fresh disk installed. Fist suspect, though, would always be the SATA cable - much cheaper than a new drive too. – Tetsujin Jul 4 '18 at 11:03
  • Oh perfect, I thought the Mac OS X base system partition (is it where the internet recovery is?) was a part of the disk rather than integral part of the firmware. – Adam Jul 4 '18 at 11:38
  • @Tetsujin so now, given there is some data on the new drive, should I wipe it in disk utility as APFS or APFS (encrypted)? I want to have my system encrypted and, as it has been earlier, only one password for decrypt and login. Should I set it to just APFS and the encryption would take place later during the installation? Will setting it to APFS (encrypted) mean I have to enter password twice for decrypt and then login? – Adam Jul 4 '18 at 11:49
  • I'm not certain, sorry. I only have desktop Macs so I've never bothered encrypting. – Tetsujin Jul 4 '18 at 12:55
  • If you set APFS (Encrypted) it will ask for the password at the beginning of the boot process, then boot directly to the desktop. If you select APFS, it will boot, ask for password then login to the desktop. You can always enable FileVault after you install if you're not sure right now. – m8377 Jul 6 '18 at 8:19

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