Apple introduced the first major App Store re-design with iOS 11.
In the re-designed App Store app, you can easily find the list of app purchases linked to the Apple ID currently logged into iTunes & App Store, by tapping on the Account profile picture visible towards top right on all of Today, Games, Apps and Updates tabs.
To view the list of purchased apps:
Open App Store App. Tap on the Account profile picture shown towards top right, from any one of the tabs.
A new screen animates from the bottom. Tap on Purchased.
Voila! All the linked apps are listed.
Above steps are similar on both iPhone and iPad
Important Note: The question contains a statement:
However there’s something I can’t find anymore with this version of App Store: The whole list of purchased apps associated with the iCloud account signed in.
Do note, that different Apples ID's can be used to sign into iCloud and iTunes & App Store on a single iOS device at the same time. The apps listed under Purchased section in the App Store app are linked to the Apple ID signed into iTunes & App Store under Setting app and not the iCloud Apple ID. Apple ID for iCloud and iTunes & App Store can be managed separately.