The said symbols are deeply integrated into the Operating System. Some of them like ⌘ (Command) and ⌥ (Option) are exclusive to the Apple platform.
It is in no way possible neither is it recommended to replace them in a system wide manner.
What is recommend to a Mac newbie, is to print a keyboard shortcuts cheat-sheet and pin it close to the desk. A few days in, and it will become second nature. A good one can be downloaded here courtesy of MacMost.
You can print a large version of just the symbol guide and pin it until it is memorized.
Update: I got inclined to update this answer after reading Krystian's nicely written comment on the question. Quoting it below:
Some people (like myself) have switched to mac after far longer than a decade of using Windows. Better yet, a lot of us didn't switch completely and use both of the systems. Get used to it and soon enough you will be ok. You will visit sites (like SO) which will use the macos specific symbols and nobody will translate them for you. Other, non-system apps, will use those symbols and will ignore your system changes. You will save yourself a lot of time, grief and confusion by learning those.