This has happened to me twice in the past week. I put my MacBook Pro to sleep while my user account is logged in. When I return, I enter the correct password and it shakes, as if the password were wrong. I try several times, and get nowhere. So I force reboot, and then I am able to login again. Here are some relevant lines from the log right after the reboot. The opendirectory lines are repeated hundreds of times.
loginwindow: -[LWBuiltInScreenLockAuthLion verifyPassword] | ERROR | Verify password called with PAM auth set to YES, but pam handle == nil opendirectoryd: Client: <private>, UID: 0, EUID: 501, GID: 20, EGID: 20 opendirectoryd: queuing request to connection - '<private>' loginwindow: (libpam.2.dylib) in od_record_create(): failed: 13 loginwindow: (libpam.2.dylib) in od_record_create_cstring(): failed: 13 loginwindow: (libpam.2.dylib) in pam_sm_authenticate(): OpenDirectory - Unable to get user record.
This is running Sierra 10.12.6. Filevault is disabled. I also notice after the reboot, Spotlight is hogging CPU for several minutes, like it's rebuilding an index, but that might be a red herring, just caused by the reboot.