In the Advanced Options for a user under the Users & Groups System Preference, there is field for UUID and a button for Create New next to it. How is the UUID used by macOS and what are the implications of changing it?
The UUID (aka GeneratedUID, so Google that one instead) is used by Open Directory Services on macOS X. You can see this and more using the macOS app Directory Utility. Read more the book Apple Training Series: Mac OS X Directory Services.
Ownership and Permissions problems would result from a change of UUID. Not just regarding files and folders, but other data such as that in Calendar.
PS: I no longer see the Create New button in High Sierra.