One of my USB ports is being constantly disabled by my OS because it is drawing too much power, without a device attached. Is there any way to permanently disable the port?
Short answer is no, you can't disable a USB port. Additionally, if you are having this issue with nothing attached to it, it's definitely a hardware issue.
First thing is to do an SMC reset.
If that doesn't fix the issue, you need to take it in for service because it's likely a logic board or component (connector issue). If I had to guess, it would be a short to ground of the 5V power rail on the USB connector. However, without actually getting hands on with it, it's only a hypothesis at best.