A few months ago I installed Ubuntu on my mac; I was dual booting. I did so following this tutorial. In this guide, I was instructed to install rEFInd; I did. Everything was good for those few months until now. The install was successful and my boot loader we rEFInd.
A few days ago, I decided that I needed to install Windows (I was itching to play some good ole' AoE 2!). I did this using boot camp.
After Windows was done doing its thing and the boot camp Windows add-ons were installed, I tried to switch back to the macOS side of the machine. I restarted the machine, held down option (entered in my firmware password), and expected to see the rEFInd boot loader (mistakenly, of course). Instead, I saw the macOS boot loader, only the only bootable device was windows. Yep, macOS and Linux were both unable to be seen from the boot loader after holding down the option key when restarting the machine; the only bootable device was Windows.
I booted up into macOS from a recovery USB that I had handy. When I did so and I opened up disk utility. The disk utility program from the live USB could see the three partition that I had—one for macOS, one for Windows, and one for Linux. The sizes of each of the partitions were correct, however something odd was going on. The Windows partition was recognized as a Bootcamp Windows partition. The Linux partition was only recognized as a Linux filesystem. The macOS partition was not recognized as a valid partition at all. It was blank space, in the eyes of this live USB disk utility program.
Next, I booted into recovery mode on the native machine (letting the machine download the internet recovery mode device). Here, the disk utility program only recognized the Bootcamp partition as the only valid partition. Both the Linux and macOS partitions were unmountable, both from disk utility and from the terminal.
At this point, I called Apple Support and their only advice was to wipe the entire disk and reinstall all three operating systems.
Well, I didn't do that. I reinstalled macOS because I keep a backup copy of all of my data so this wasn't a big deal to me.
Now, on this fresh install of macOS (the most recent version, 10.13.2). Disk utility recognizes Windows and macOS, but it won't recognize the Linux partition, even as a Linux filesystem. I can still see the partition that I made for it a few months ago, but it appears that I would have to delete and reinstall Linux to boot into it again. I don't keep a backup of that, unfortunately, because I only do tiny projects on there. There is currently one tiny project that I actually care about that I would rather not lose.
Further, rEFInd will not boot up when I restart and press the option key. Yes, I have disabled SIP and installed it from macOS. Yes, I have installed it from a USB while in recovery mode.
My two questions: 1. How do I make rEFInd be the default bootloader. When you answer this, please understand that I have already followed the instructions form the rEFInd webiste found here. 2. If number 1 cannot happen, how can I get disk utility to recognize the Linux partition (which it did before I tried to install Windows with boot camp by the way)?
EDIT: Responding to more information
Model/Year: Late 2013 Macbook Pro Windows Version: Windows 10 Education edition
$ diskutil list /dev/disk0 (internal, physical): #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme *500.3 GB disk0 1: EFI EFI 209.7 MB disk0s1 2: Apple_APFS Container disk1 350.0 GB disk0s2 3: Microsoft Basic Data BOOTCAMP 100.1 GB disk0s3 4: Linux Filesystem 50.0 GB disk0s4 /dev/disk1 (synthesized): #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: APFS Container Scheme - +350.0 GB disk1 Physical Store disk0s2 1: APFS Volume macOS 85.2 GB disk1s1 2: APFS Volume Preboot 20.3 MB disk1s2 3: APFS Volume Recovery 506.6 MB disk1s3 4: APFS Volume VM 1.1 GB disk1s4 /dev/disk2 (external, physical): #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: Apple_partition_scheme *62.0 GB disk2 1: Apple_partition_map 32.3 KB disk2s1 2: Apple_HFS Traveldrive 61.8 GB disk2s3 $ sudo gpt -r show /dev/disk0 start size index contents 0 1 PMBR 1 1 Pri GPT header 2 32 Pri GPT table 34 6 40 409600 1 GPT part - C12A7328-F81F-11D2-BA4B-00A0C93EC93B 409640 683595736 2 GPT part - 7C3457EF-0000-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC 684005376 195442688 3 GPT part - EBD0A0A2-B9E5-4433-87C0-68B6B72699C7 879448064 704 879448768 97656256 4 GPT part - 0FC63DAF-8483-4772-8E79-3D69D8477DE4 977105024 3 977105027 32 Sec GPT table 977105059 1 Sec GPT header $ sudo fdisk /dev/disk0 Disk: /dev/disk0 geometry: 60821/255/63 [977105060 sectors] Signature: 0xAA55 Starting Ending #: id cyl hd sec - cyl hd sec [ start - size] ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1: EE 1023 254 63 - 1023 254 63 [ 1 - 977105059] <Unknown ID> 2: 00 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 [ 0 - 0] unused 3: 00 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 [ 0 - 0] unused 4: 00 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 [ 0 - 0] unused