This is not a duplicate of this question. The situation is a bit different. In my case, I have already installed High Sierra on a MacBook Pro 15inch 2017. I encountered this issue when updating the Security Update 2017-001. It got stuck in a boot loop where upon entering my password, it would send me to install High Sierra. (I've installed it over a month ago). Then it would show this error.
Answer on our end has been to boot into Safe Mode and install the OSX 10.13.3 combo update (Installs ALL 10.13.3 files, not just upgrades from 10.13.2 to 10.13.3) from here: https://support.apple.com/kb/DL1953?locale=en_US
The app store version is not the combo update and it appears the push from 10.13.2 to 10.13.3 is the cause of this error. This will overwrite whatever Apple did on the backend to screw up the individual 10.13.3 update.