I can sort (without using sections) in list view just fine, by clicking the column header. But I can't find any way to do this in column view, as there's no equivalent to the View Options panel (the View menu varies depending on the app).
Note that the Arrange By button works differently, so it is not a substitute. It controls the sections of files, while Sort By controls the sorting within those sections.
I'm open to things like
defaults commands, but I'd rather not install external software if I don't have to. (But if you have something that works, by all means put it here!)