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I have found a way to reverse tether an iOS device, or connect it to the internet over the usb cable only. Many older ways to do this required an active data connection as you would set the proxy for that interface manually to use a usb tcp tunnel. The host is a Mac running the macOS High Sierra developer preview. The idevice is an iPhone 4s running iOS 7.1.2 jailbroken. The way I have done it is as follows:

Create a pppd tunnel. First, I installed libimobiledevice to setup a tcp tunnel to login with ssh to my idevice later:

iproxy 2022 22 

then a dedicated tunnel for pppd to use:

iproxy 4444 4444

I now login to my idevice: ssh localhost -p 2022

Now, the pppd tunnel, first from my idevice:

pppd noipdefault nodetach usepeerdns pty "nc -l -p 4444 localhost"

Notice that I am listening for a connection from the client. This is because iproxy only allows a connection to be initiated from the host computer. Now, on the host computer:

pppd 172.16.1.2:172.16.1.3 proxyarp usehostname ms-dns 8.8.8.8 nodetach pty "nc localhost 4444"

I am using nc as my connection, again because of the host only connection limitation.

After a few seconds, both the host and client pppd processes output the connection details:

client pppd:
Wed Sep 13 00:36:28 2017 : publish_entry SCDSet() failed: Success!
Wed Sep 13 00:36:28 2017 : publish_entry SCDSet() failed: Success!
Wed Sep 13 00:36:28 2017 : set_up_tty, can't set controlling terminal: Operation not permitted
Wed Sep 13 00:36:28 2017 : Using interface ppp0
Wed Sep 13 00:36:28 2017 : Connect: ppp0 <--> /dev/ttys003
Wed Sep 13 00:36:32 2017 : local  IP address 172.16.1.3
Wed Sep 13 00:36:32 2017 : remote IP address 172.16.1.2
Wed Sep 13 00:36:32 2017 : primary   DNS address 8.8.8.8
Wed Sep 13 00:36:32 2017 : secondary DNS address 8.8.8.8
host pppd: 
Wed Sep 13 00:36:19 2017 : publish_entry SCDSet() failed: Success!
Wed Sep 13 00:36:19 2017 : publish_entry SCDSet() failed: Success!
Wed Sep 13 00:36:19 2017 : set_up_tty, can't set controlling terminal:       
Operation not permitted
Wed Sep 13 00:36:19 2017 : Using interface ppp0
Wed Sep 13 00:36:19 2017 : Connect: ppp0 <--> /dev/ttys015
Wed Sep 13 00:36:20 2017 : found interface en1 for proxy arp
Wed Sep 13 00:36:20 2017 : local  IP address 172.16.1.2
Wed Sep 13 00:36:20 2017 : remote IP address 172.16.1.3
Wed Sep 13 00:36:20 2017 : Committed PPP store

The idevice is now connected to my host machine. I have installed adv-cmds and network-cmds from Cydia, and so I have ifconfig, route, etc available. From my idevice:

$ ifconfig

lo0: flags=8049<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 16384
    inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000 
pdp_ip0: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
pdp_ip1: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
pdp_ip2: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
pdp_ip3: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
en0: flags=8822<BROADCAST,SMART,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
    ether c2:9f:42:7f:cd:1d 
ppp0: flags=8051<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
    inet 172.16.1.3 --> 172.16.1.2 netmask 0xffff0000

It is working! But I can't use it yet. The idevice doesn't have any routes for this new interface. My home network is on the 172.16 network, and I want to reach all devices on it. So I run:

route add -net 172.16 172.16.1.2

Now, if I open safari, I can access all devices on that network. If I go further, and do

route add default 172.16.1.2

I can access all numerical ip addresses, external and internal! However all domain names still return the dreaded "Safari cannot open the page because your iPhone is not connected to the Internet." Let's see my route setup:

$ netstat -rn
Routing tables

Internet:
Destination        Gateway            Flags    Refs      Use  Netif Expire
default            172.16.1.2         UGSc        0        0   ppp0
127                127.0.0.1          UCS         0        0    lo0
127.0.0.1          127.0.0.1          UH         11    49203    lo0
172.16             172.16.1.2         UGSc        2        0   ppp0
172.16.1.2         172.16.1.3         UH          4       12   ppp0
224.0.0/4          lo0                UCS         0        0    lo0

I had a hunch that iOS includes a few system-related tools preinstalled, and that's how I found pppd.

$ ls /usr/sbin
BTAvrcp     BlueTool  addNetworkInterface  distnoted          ipconfig         mkfile   nvram     rtadvd    startupfiletool  traceroute6  vipw       zic
BTLEServer  absd      arp          fairplayd.H1       mDNSResponder    natd     pppd      scselect  sysctl       trpt         wifid
BTMap       ac        aslmanager       filecoordinationd  mDNSResponderHelper  ndp      pwd_mkdb  scutil    syslogd      update       wirelessproxd
BTServer    accton    daily        iostat         mediaserverd     notifyd  racoon    sshd  traceroute   vifs         zdump

addNetworkInterface is a tool I've never seen before.

/usr/sbin/addNetworkInterface --help
options:

[-i <interface>]
[-c <controller>]
[-p] persistent host detection
[-s] route logging to syslog

Let's try it with ppp0:

/usr/sbin/addNetworkInterface -i ppp0 
Looking for interface ppp0
Looking for all controllers
Looking for network interfaces...

Doesn't seem to do anything. Maybe the DNS isn't detected? In /usr/sbin I also found scutil, which I had seen before, in OS X. So,

   $ scutil --dns
resolver #1

resolver #2
  domain   : local
  options  : mdns
  timeout  : 5
  order    : 300000

resolver #3
  domain   : 254.169.in-addr.arpa
  options  : mdns
  timeout  : 5
  order    : 300200

resolver #4
  domain   : 8.e.f.ip6.arpa
  options  : mdns
  timeout  : 5
  order    : 300400

resolver #5
  domain   : 9.e.f.ip6.arpa
  options  : mdns
  timeout  : 5
  order    : 300600

resolver #6
  domain   : a.e.f.ip6.arpa
  options  : mdns
  timeout  : 5
  order    : 300800

resolver #7
  domain   : b.e.f.ip6.arpa
  options  : mdns
  timeout  : 5
  order    : 301000

Hmm, no 8.8.8.8 (google public dns) And resolver #1 is empty. Let's see if iOS even sees ppp0:

$ scutil --nwi
IPv4 network interface information
 No IPv4 states found

IPv6 network interface information
 No IPv6 states found

Aha, iOS doesn't see my ppp0 interface. However, I happen to have an L2TP vpn server running at 172.16.12.1. I tried adding a vpn via settings for it, and it connects! I have internet access, and DNS is resolving. Let's see what changed:

$ ifconfig
lo0: flags=8049<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 16384
    inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000 
pdp_ip0: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
pdp_ip1: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
pdp_ip2: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
pdp_ip3: flags=8010<POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
en0: flags=8863<UP,BROADCAST,SMART,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
    ether c2:9f:42:7f:cd:1d 
ppp0: flags=8051<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
    inet 172.16.1.3 --> 172.16.1.2 netmask 0xffff0000 
ppp1: flags=8051<UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1280
    inet 172.17.0.6 --> 172.16.12.1 netmask 0xffff0000 

Ok, let's try scutil:

$ scutil --nwi
IPv4 network interface information
    ppp1 : flags 0x5 (IPv4,DNS)
           reach 0x3 (Reachable,Transient Connection)
           VPN server: 172.16.12.1
           Signature Hash: <data> 0x3287f850c5bceebf3963027f203dfd222b245973
           generation 890780619714

IPv6 network interface information
 No IPv6 states found

Aha, iOS does see that vpn connection. Let's see the routing tables now:

$ netstat -rn
Routing tables

Internet:
Destination        Gateway            Flags    Refs      Use  Netif Expire
default            172.16.12.1        UGSc        1        0   ppp1
127                127.0.0.1          UCS         0        0    lo0
127.0.0.1          127.0.0.1          UH         11    49349    lo0
172.16             172.16.1.2         UGSc        2        0   ppp0
172.16.1.2         172.16.1.3         UH          3       12   ppp0
172.16.12.1        172.17.0.7         UH          2        0   ppp1
172.17             ppp1               USc         0        0   ppp1

Note that my L2TP vpn server assigns addresses in the 172.17 network. Interesting... but that's exactly what I did with my pppd setup.

Let's try and see what scutil sees. You can enter interactive mode by just invoking scutil without arguments.

$ scutil
> list
  subKey [0] = Plugin:IPConfiguration
  subKey [1] = Plugin:InterfaceNamer
  subKey [2] = Setup:
  subKey [3] = Setup:/
  subKey [4] = Setup:/Network/Global/IPv4
  subKey [5] = Setup:/Network/HostNames
  subKey [6] = Setup:/Network/Service/10D89B08-6E93-430C-BF49-A20670EFE79D
  subKey [7] = Setup:/Network/Service/10D89B08-6E93-430C-BF49-A20670EFE79D/Interface
  subKey [8] = Setup:/Network/Service/10D89B08-6E93-430C-BF49-A20670EFE79D/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [9] = Setup:/Network/Service/10D89B08-6E93-430C-BF49-A20670EFE79D/com.apple.CommCenter/Setup
  subKey [10] = Setup:/Network/Service/23C902DC-A50E-4873-8A40-F9EFF62CCE97
  subKey [11] = Setup:/Network/Service/23C902DC-A50E-4873-8A40-F9EFF62CCE97/IPv4
  subKey [12] = Setup:/Network/Service/23C902DC-A50E-4873-8A40-F9EFF62CCE97/IPv6
  subKey [13] = Setup:/Network/Service/23C902DC-A50E-4873-8A40-F9EFF62CCE97/Interface
  subKey [14] = Setup:/Network/Service/23C902DC-A50E-4873-8A40-F9EFF62CCE97/Proxies
  subKey [15] = Setup:/Network/Service/261FD5D3-87FF-4D60-A3C2-66A8B785BFF7
  subKey [16] = Setup:/Network/Service/261FD5D3-87FF-4D60-A3C2-66A8B785BFF7/Interface
  subKey [17] = Setup:/Network/Service/261FD5D3-87FF-4D60-A3C2-66A8B785BFF7/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [18] = Setup:/Network/Service/AFA7F205-4647-4C6D-890E-9925C4909BE2
  subKey [19] = Setup:/Network/Service/AFA7F205-4647-4C6D-890E-9925C4909BE2/Interface
  subKey [20] = Setup:/Network/Service/AFA7F205-4647-4C6D-890E-9925C4909BE2/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [21] = Setup:/Network/Service/AFA7F205-4647-4C6D-890E-9925C4909BE2/com.apple.CommCenter/Setup
  subKey [22] = Setup:/Network/Service/B7F49FAB-68BA-483B-8867-8190FD5B94ED
  subKey [23] = Setup:/Network/Service/B7F49FAB-68BA-483B-8867-8190FD5B94ED/Interface
  subKey [24] = Setup:/Network/Service/B7F49FAB-68BA-483B-8867-8190FD5B94ED/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [25] = Setup:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7
  subKey [26] = Setup:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/IPSec
  subKey [27] = Setup:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/IPv4
  subKey [28] = Setup:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/IPv6
  subKey [29] = Setup:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/Interface
  subKey [30] = Setup:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/PPP
  subKey [31] = Setup:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/Proxies
  subKey [32] = Setup:/System
  subKey [33] = State:/IOKit/LowBatteryWarning
  subKey [34] = State:/IOKit/PowerAdapter
  subKey [35] = State:/IOKit/PowerManagement/CurrentSettings
  subKey [36] = State:/IOKit/PowerManagement/SystemLoad
  subKey [37] = State:/IOKit/PowerManagement/SystemLoad/Detailed
  subKey [38] = State:/IOKit/PowerSources/InternalBattery-0
  subKey [39] = State:/Network/Global/DNS
  subKey [40] = State:/Network/Global/IPv4
  subKey [41] = State:/Network/Global/Proxies
  subKey [42] = State:/Network/Interface
  subKey [43] = State:/Network/Interface/en0/Link
  subKey [44] = State:/Network/Interface/lo0/IPv4
  subKey [45] = State:/Network/Interface/lo0/IPv6
  subKey [46] = State:/Network/Interface/lo0/LinkQuality
  subKey [47] = State:/Network/Interface/pdp_ip0/LinkQuality
  subKey [48] = State:/Network/Interface/pdp_ip1/LinkQuality
  subKey [49] = State:/Network/Interface/pdp_ip2/LinkQuality
  subKey [50] = State:/Network/Interface/pdp_ip3/LinkQuality
  subKey [51] = State:/Network/Interface/ppp0/IPv4
  subKey [52] = State:/Network/Interface/ppp1/IPv4
  subKey [53] = State:/Network/MulticastDNS
  subKey [54] = State:/Network/Service/10D89B08-6E93-430C-BF49-A20670EFE79D
  subKey [55] = State:/Network/Service/10D89B08-6E93-430C-BF49-A20670EFE79D/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [56] = State:/Network/Service/261FD5D3-87FF-4D60-A3C2-66A8B785BFF7/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [57] = State:/Network/Service/AAAAAAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAAAAAAAAAA
  subKey [58] = State:/Network/Service/AAAAAAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAAAAAAAAAA/DNS
  subKey [59] = State:/Network/Service/AAAAAAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAAAAAAAAAA/IPv4
  subKey [60] = State:/Network/Service/AAAAAAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAAAAAAAAAA/IPv6
  subKey [61] = State:/Network/Service/AAAAAAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAAAAAAAAAA/PPP
  subKey [62] = State:/Network/Service/AFA7F205-4647-4C6D-890E-9925C4909BE2/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [63] = State:/Network/Service/B7F49FAB-68BA-483B-8867-8190FD5B94ED/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [64] = State:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/DNS
  subKey [65] = State:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/IPv4
  subKey [66] = State:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/IPv6
  subKey [67] = State:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/PPP
  subKey [68] = State:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/Proxies
  subKey [69] = State:/Network/mDNSResponder/DebugState
  subKey [70] = com.apple.CFNetwork.netcompat.HTTPPipelining:VPN.RemoteAddress=172.16.12.1
  subKey [71] = com.apple.CFNetwork.netcompat.TLSFalseStart:VPN.RemoteAddress=172.16.12.1
  subKey [72] = com.apple.CFNetwork.netcompat:com.apple.CFNetwork.netcompat.lastpurge
  subKey [73] = com.apple.MobileInternetSharing

So iOS has a whole lot of interfaces set up. I'm only interested in the active one, my l2tp vpn, which is ppp1. So:

> get State:/Network/Global/IPv4
> d.show
<dictionary> {
  PrimaryInterface : ppp1
  PrimaryService : FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7
  Router : 172.16.12.1
}

> get State:/Network/Global/DNS
> d.show
<dictionary> {
  ServerAddresses : <array> {
    0 : 8.8.8.8
    1 : 8.8.4.4
  }
}

So it is defined there. Let's get all the values for the PrimaryService:

> get State:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/DNS
> d.show 
<dictionary> {
  ServerAddresses : <array> {
    0 : 8.8.8.8
    1 : 8.8.4.4
  }
SupplementalMatchDomains : <array> {
    0 : 
  }
  SupplementalMatchOrders : <array> {
    0 : 100000
  }
}

> get State:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/IPv4
> d.show 
<dictionary> {
  Addresses : <array> {
    0 : 172.17.0.7
  }
  DestAddresses : <array> {
    0 : 172.16.12.1
  }
InterfaceName : ppp1
  NetworkSignature : VPN.RemoteAddress=172.16.12.1
  OverridePrimary : 1
  Router : 172.16.12.1
  ServerAddress : 172.16.12.1
}

> get State:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/PPP
> d.show 
<dictionary> {
CommRemoteAddress : 172.16.12.1
  ConnectTime : 37417
  IPCPCompressionVJ : 0
  InterfaceName : ppp1
  LCPCompressionACField : 1
  LCPCompressionPField : 1
  LCPMRU : 1500
  LCPMTU : 1280
  Status : 8
}

All defined. Let's see it without the L2TP vpn connected:

> list
  subKey [0] = Plugin:IPConfiguration
  subKey [1] = Plugin:InterfaceNamer
  subKey [2] = Setup:
  subKey [3] = Setup:/
  subKey [4] = Setup:/Network/Global/IPv4
  subKey [5] = Setup:/Network/HostNames
  subKey [6] = Setup:/Network/Service/10D89B08-6E93-430C-BF49-A20670EFE79D
  subKey [7] = Setup:/Network/Service/10D89B08-6E93-430C-BF49-A20670EFE79D/Interface
  subKey [8] = Setup:/Network/Service/10D89B08-6E93-430C-BF49-A20670EFE79D/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [9] = Setup:/Network/Service/10D89B08-6E93-430C-BF49-A20670EFE79D/com.apple.CommCenter/Setup
  subKey [10] = Setup:/Network/Service/23C902DC-A50E-4873-8A40-F9EFF62CCE97
  subKey [11] = Setup:/Network/Service/23C902DC-A50E-4873-8A40-F9EFF62CCE97/IPv4
  subKey [12] = Setup:/Network/Service/23C902DC-A50E-4873-8A40-F9EFF62CCE97/IPv6
  subKey [13] = Setup:/Network/Service/23C902DC-A50E-4873-8A40-F9EFF62CCE97/Interface
  subKey [14] = Setup:/Network/Service/23C902DC-A50E-4873-8A40-F9EFF62CCE97/Proxies
  subKey [15] = Setup:/Network/Service/261FD5D3-87FF-4D60-A3C2-66A8B785BFF7
  subKey [16] = Setup:/Network/Service/261FD5D3-87FF-4D60-A3C2-66A8B785BFF7/Interface
  subKey [17] = Setup:/Network/Service/261FD5D3-87FF-4D60-A3C2-66A8B785BFF7/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [18] = Setup:/Network/Service/AFA7F205-4647-4C6D-890E-9925C4909BE2
  subKey [19] = Setup:/Network/Service/AFA7F205-4647-4C6D-890E-9925C4909BE2/Interface
  subKey [20] = Setup:/Network/Service/AFA7F205-4647-4C6D-890E-9925C4909BE2/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [21] = Setup:/Network/Service/AFA7F205-4647-4C6D-890E-9925C4909BE2/com.apple.CommCenter/Setup
  subKey [22] = Setup:/Network/Service/B7F49FAB-68BA-483B-8867-8190FD5B94ED
  subKey [23] = Setup:/Network/Service/B7F49FAB-68BA-483B-8867-8190FD5B94ED/Interface
  subKey [24] = Setup:/Network/Service/B7F49FAB-68BA-483B-8867-8190FD5B94ED/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [25] = Setup:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7
  subKey [26] = Setup:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/IPSec
  subKey [27] = Setup:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/IPv4
  subKey [28] = Setup:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/IPv6
  subKey [29] = Setup:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/Interface
  subKey [30] = Setup:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/PPP
  subKey [31] = Setup:/Network/Service/FF84E6AB-D5D4-4CE0-A9EE-FBAB5DE824C7/Proxies
  subKey [32] = Setup:/System
  subKey [33] = State:/IOKit/LowBatteryWarning
  subKey [34] = State:/IOKit/PowerAdapter
  subKey [35] = State:/IOKit/PowerManagement/CurrentSettings
  subKey [36] = State:/IOKit/PowerManagement/SystemLoad
  subKey [37] = State:/IOKit/PowerManagement/SystemLoad/Detailed
  subKey [38] = State:/IOKit/PowerSources/InternalBattery-0
  subKey [39] = State:/Network/Global/Proxies
  subKey [40] = State:/Network/Interface
  subKey [41] = State:/Network/Interface/en0/Link
  subKey [42] = State:/Network/Interface/lo0/IPv4
  subKey [43] = State:/Network/Interface/lo0/IPv6
  subKey [44] = State:/Network/Interface/lo0/LinkQuality
  subKey [45] = State:/Network/Interface/pdp_ip0/LinkQuality
  subKey [46] = State:/Network/Interface/pdp_ip1/LinkQuality
  subKey [47] = State:/Network/Interface/pdp_ip2/LinkQuality
  subKey [48] = State:/Network/Interface/pdp_ip3/LinkQuality
  subKey [49] = State:/Network/Interface/ppp0/IPv4
  subKey [50] = State:/Network/MulticastDNS
  subKey [51] = State:/Network/Service/10D89B08-6E93-430C-BF49-A20670EFE79D
  subKey [52] = State:/Network/Service/10D89B08-6E93-430C-BF49-A20670EFE79D/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [53] = State:/Network/Service/261FD5D3-87FF-4D60-A3C2-66A8B785BFF7/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [54] = State:/Network/Service/AAAAAAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAAAAAAAAAA
  subKey [55] = State:/Network/Service/AAAAAAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAAAAAAAAAA/DNS
  subKey [56] = State:/Network/Service/AAAAAAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAAAAAAAAAA/IPv4
  subKey [57] = State:/Network/Service/AAAAAAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAAAAAAAAAA/IPv6
  subKey [58] = State:/Network/Service/AAAAAAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAAAAAAAAAA/PPP
  subKey [59] = State:/Network/Service/AFA7F205-4647-4C6D-890E-9925C4909BE2/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [60] = State:/Network/Service/B7F49FAB-68BA-483B-8867-8190FD5B94ED/com.apple.CommCenter
  subKey [61] = State:/Network/mDNSResponder/DebugState
  subKey [62] = com.apple.CFNetwork.netcompat.HTTPPipelining:VPN.RemoteAddress=172.16.12.1
  subKey [63] = com.apple.CFNetwork.netcompat.TLSFalseStart:VPN.RemoteAddress=172.16.12.1
  subKey [64] = com.apple.CFNetwork.netcompat:com.apple.CFNetwork.netcompat.lastpurge
  subKey [65] = com.apple.MobileInternetSharing

All the configuration is gone. That's why it is not working. Note that the service AAAAAAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAA-AAAAAAAAAAAA is one I tried manually making and adding all the keys like they were set up for ppp1 but replacing it with ppp0 but it didn't work.

So, is it possible to add ppp0 via scutil or some other way, such that the DNS addresses work, and iOS is aware that it IS an internet connection, that apps can use?

1

macOS has the built in ability to share its internet connection over usb. Check it out, it's in System Preferences > Sharing > Content Caching

internet connection sharing tickbox

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