I recently lost my iPhone. I have no SIM and no backups (either local, or in iCloud).
Is there a way to recover the lost data? For example, the call history, messages, contacts etc.
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Without any kind of backup there is no way to get the data unless you find the iPhone.
If you remember your Apple ID and password, you can login to appleid.apple.com and set the device as lost. This should keep a thief or anyone who finds the phone from accessing your personal data. Hopefully you have the iPhone set with a passcode to unlock.
If you can’t find your iOS device, Apple Watch, or Mac, use Lost Mode right away to lock it and keep track of its location. For more information, or if you can’t use Lost Mode because Find My iPhone wasn’t set up on your lost device, see the Apple Support article If your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch is lost or stolen.
The short answer is no, assuming you have never used iCloud or made local backups.
Basically, if you:
However, if you've made backups in the past, either with iCloud or via iTunes, then you may have the ability to retrieve some data (albeit dated).
This question mentions no backup is available; however there’s still a chance the OP was using an iCloud account. If that is the case, then the following is already in iCloud even without a backup, and can be recovered simply by connecting a new iPhone to your iCloud account:
In fact you could login to iCloud.com and see that data on the web already.
Note that many of these bullet points would also apply if you used some other service that stores all its data in the cloud, eg. Gmail or Outlook.
What you will NOT be able to recover:
Starting with iOS 11, messages will also be stored in iCloud, so you will not need to backup your iPhone to keep a history of your messages.
I know this doesn’t help you here; however if you’ve got another Apple device connected to your iCloud account with Text Forwarding enabled, activating iCloud Messages once it becomes available will push all those conversations from that device back onto your new iPhone.