Short of figuring out how to achieve a dual boot configuration for my mid-2012 2GHz i7 MacBook Air to boot to a Linux OS, I've made a "live" boot USB with Ubuntu 16.04.2 LTS using UNetbootin. I would, however, like a "persistent" boot USB. Can this be done? So far I have tried the following to modify the "live" USB but would I be better off making a persistent USB on Windows and hoping it runs on Sierra?
- Per these Enterprise Installation instructions (from version 0.4.0), this seems like it might be an option:
6) OPTIONAL! If you're going to be booting Ubuntu, you can create a persistence file on the root of your USB to save changes. You can do that with the following commands (assuming that your USB is named usb and is mounted under /media/user... obviously, set these to the correct paths):
dd if=/dev/zero of=/media/user/usb/casper-rw bs=1M count=128 yes | mkfs.ext3 /media/user/usb/casper-rw
These commands create a 128 MB persistence file. You can change the size of the persistence file in megabytes by adjusting the count parameter. All values should be a power of two (e.g 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 ... 1024, 2056). Then, to activate persistence, when you boot your USB drive, select option 2 to go to the advanced options screen, highlight option 1 and make sure it activates, and then press 0 to boot the drive. You must repeat this process each time you wish to boot with persistence.
The "instructions" were written December 23, 2016... and there are a few things I notice which are different:
casperexists on the USB, is
casper-rwwhere the persistent data gets written, or should I modify the command to
casper-rw, this throws an error:
$ dd if=/dev/zero of=/Volumes/UBUNTU/casper-rw bs=1M count=128 dd: bs: illegal numeric value
...to which man dd offers no clarification regarding block size numerical values, except this (from 1994):
Where sizes are specified, a decimal, octal, or hexadecimal number of bytes is expected. If the number ends with a ``b'', ``k'', ``m'', ``g'', or ``w'', the number is multiplied by 512, 1024 (1K), 1048576 (1M), 1073741824 (1G) or the number of bytes in an integer, respectively. Two or more numbers may be separated by an ``x'' to indicate a product.
So... I tried this on a lark:
$ dd if=/dev/zero of=/Volumes/UBUNTU/casper-rw bs=1m count=128 128+0 records in 128+0 records out 134217728 bytes transferred in 29.537984 secs (4543903 bytes/sec)
$ yes | mkfs.ext3 /Volumes/UBUNTU/casper-rw -bash: mkfs.ext3: command not found
...to which I invoked
brew install e2fsprogsand
$ yes | sudo $(brew --prefix e2fsprogs)/sbin/mkfs.ext3 /Volumes/UBUNTU/casper-rw mke2fs 1.43.4 (31-Jan-2017) Creating filesystem with 131072 1k blocks and 32768 inodes Filesystem UUID: 4217a6de-e267-4cec-b4e7-f70acb9adb0c Superblock backups stored on blocks: 8193, 24577, 40961, 57345, 73729
Allocating group tables: done
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (4096 blocks): done Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
but still no persistence :\
per the SETUP section of the instructions, I also tried dropping these files into the live USB's /efi/boot/ directory to no avail...
Any known exits from this rabbit hole with macOS Sierra?