Google Drive is installed but there is no option "View with Google Drive" or "Share with Google Drive" when I Control-click / Right-click on an item in the Finder like my coworkers have. How do you enable them?
You need to enable the Finder extension Google Drive.
Open the contextual menu for any file, and click on Share and then More.
That will bring you to the Extensions window.
Click on Finder and in the "Select extensions for customizing Finder" select Google Drive.
Now you should see the "View in Google Drive" and "Share with Google Drive" options when you Control-click / secondary click on files inside your Google Drive.
RubenLaguna's solution works actually. Despite of that I could test that on MacOS 10.13.6 (the well-know High Sierra). On High Sierra, after you get in Extensions settings, you'll not be able to find Google Drive.
A solution is simply open your Backup and Synch app, relaunch the Finder (ALT + right click on Finder then press "relaunch"). After that, you'll be able to see sharing Google Drive options after right clicking on any folder/file in Finder.