Is it possible in Sierra's Finder to change the name of a program associated with a file kind? For example, when in list view, a PDF lists the file kind as Adobe PDF Document, could this be changed to simply PDF?
It depends on the default application you are using to open PDF documents. To change it, right-click the file, click Get Info, click Expand on a section called "Open with", and there change the default app to Preview. After that, click the button "Change All...", and then click Continue. Keep in mind that this will change the default app used to open PDF documents.