I performed a fresh install of macOS Sierra onto a 2012 MBP13 non-Retina SSD. The install was from a USB flashdrive installer, and I set up the system drive partitions manually with a case-sensitive encrypted system volume, a FAT partition that I later installed Windows on, and a case-insensitive unencrypted volume for Steam data (Steam doesn't work for some reason, but that's another question!)
Partition map while MacOS is running:
aluminum:Downloads dhm$ diskutil list /dev/disk0 (internal, physical): #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: GUID_partition_scheme *500.1 GB disk0 1: EFI EFI 209.7 MB disk0s1 2: Apple_CoreStorage Aluminum 319.8 GB disk0s2 3: Apple_Boot Recovery HD 650.0 MB disk0s3 4: Microsoft Basic Data BOOTCAMP 146.3 GB disk0s4 5: Apple_HFS Steam 32.9 GB disk0s5 /dev/disk1 (internal, virtual): #: TYPE NAME SIZE IDENTIFIER 0: Apple_HFS Aluminum +319.5 GB disk1 Logical Volume on disk0s2 xxxxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx Unlocked Encrypted
During MacOS installation, I created a user account. Then afterward, I created two more. Now, when I reboot, I can choose MacOS or Windows (no recovery option). When I boot MacOS, I get a chooser that offers "Enter Disk Password," "User 2" and "User 3" (No choice to log into the account I made during installation.)
If I enter the disk password, then I get "User 1," "User 2" and "User 3," and everything works as expected. If I don't enter the disk password and just log in as "User 2" or "User 3," I get a desktop but things don't work right (lots of "Please fix the library" messages.)
Why can I log in as "User 2" or "User 3" even without entering the disk password? (I would expect all the system-partition information to be encrypted, but it looks like there's at least some unencrypted information lying around.)
What's the difference between this setup and the alternative "Do a normal, unencrypted install, then turn on FileVault?"
Where can I read more about the various methods macOS uses to support multiple partitions, encrypted partitions, logical volumes & so forth?